Long-term linear trends in ECHAM4.5 (top panel) and NOAA NCEP-DOE Reanalysis-2 (bottom panel) mean annual air temperatures along the longitudinal axis of the Andes Cordillera (see pink 2.8125° and 2.5° grid cells in map panels on the left), for the latitudinal ranges [60°S-15°N; top panel] and [60°S-13°N; bottom panel], for nine (1000, 950, 850, 700, 500, 400, 300, 200, and 100 mb; top panel) and twelve (1000, 925, 850, 700, 600, 500, 400, 300, 250, 200, 150, and 100 mb; bottom panel) pressure levels, and for the historical periods 1950–2010 and 1979–2012. ECHAM4.5 air temperatures are obtained through ensemble simulation runs. Trends are expressed in °C per decade; see color scales on the right. Only statistically significant (at <0.05) long-term linear trends are displayed; i.e. non-significant trends are depicted by white boxes. Black solid triangles and crosses depict, respectively, the average and maximum altitudes (expressed in atmospheric pressures) of the NOAA NGDC GLOBE gridded 1-km, quality controlled global digital elevation model (Hastings and Dunbar, 1999) in each grid cell. Areas blocked in grey depict grid boxes below the ground surface. Source: Ruiz et al.2012 and Ruiz, 2013.