GPCC December-February precipitation over South America for the period 1960–1999. a) Time mean precipitation over that period, with a 100 mm/month contour interval. b) Linear trends over the same period, with the thick black showing the zero contour, and additional contours at −25 and 25 mm/month intervals. The magenta dots indicate grid points were the linear trend is significant at the 90% level, according to a Mann-Kendall test. In both panels, the black box shows our definition of SESA. c) GPCC SESA precipitation time series for DJF (left, red) and JJA (right, blue) in the period 1901–2007. The dashed black line indicates the 1901–1960 mean value. Adapted from (Gonzalez et al. 2013).