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Table 1 Demographical and anthropometrical characteristics of the study sample (N = 2223) in the different survey rounds

From: Seasonal and spatial factors related to longitudinal patterns of child growth in Bwamanda, DR Congo

  Round A Round B Round C Round D Round E Round F
Number of children analyzed 1293 1505 1734 1957 2223 2223
Average age in months (SD) 11.2 (6.4) 12.3 (7.0) 13.3 (7.7) 14.6 (8.4) 16.8 (9.5) 20.0 (9.6)
Mean LAZ (SD) −1.86 (1.39) −1.98 (1.35) −1.87 (1.33) −2.03 (1.29) −2.26 (1.25) −2.34 (1.17)
Mean WAZ (SD) −1.24 (1.23) −1.24 (1.18) −1.30 (1.18) −1.44 (1.20) −1.54 (1.16) −1.52 (1.06)
Mean WLZ (SD) −0.24 (1.20) −0.12 (1.15) −0.30 (1.17) −0.37 (1.14) −0.31 (1.11) −0.26 (1.01)
Mean MUAZ (SD) −1.72 (1.10) −1.72 (1.06) −1,84 (1.08) −2.01 (1.11) 2.23 (1.12) 2.12 (1.00)
Stunted (%) Moderate 25.7 28.2 28.5 29.0 32.3 33.1
Severely 19.6 22.1 18.4 21.8 27.1 27.8
Underweight (%) Moderate 17.6 16.3 18.6 20.9 23.8 22.6
Severely 7.1 7.2 7.7 10.1 10.5 8.3
Wasted (%) Moderate 5.4 4.6 5.3 5.2 5.0 4.2
Severely 1.5 0.9 0.9 1.7 1.4 0.5
Low MUAZ (%) Moderate 28.5 27.6 27.8 31.0 34.4 36.9
Severely 11.8 10.9 14.8 18.2 23.6 17.8
  1. Stunting is defined as low length-for-age Z-score (LAZ), underweight as low weight-for-age Z-score (WAZ), wasting as low weight-for-length Z-score (WLZ) and low MUAC as low mid-upper-arm-circumference-for-age Z-score (MUAZ) according to the WHO Child Growth Standards. Cut-offs for moderate malnutrition were set to ≤ −2 and > −3 Z-score, and for severe malnutrition to ≤ −3 Z-score.